Why is soil so important? There are many angles you could take to evaluate, and answer, that question. A geologist, a kid writing an essay for school, a conservationist, or a real estate developer would all take a different slant on it.
A gardener is interested in primarily one aspect of this topic.
What difference will the soil make for all the different plants you want to grow?
What does soil actually do to help or hinder the development and health of plants? What is good soil?
Some people might think that weeds are the most troublesome element to deal with in a garden. It is probably more accurate to say this:
the number one thing that will disappoint and dishearten a gardener is working with soil that is difficult to manage or just plain unproductive.
Let’s take a look at why that is true.
Different plants prefer different growing conditions.
Plants are naturally suited to survive or thrive within a certain range of factors. These include:
CREATING HEALTHY SOIL FOR GARDENING IS THE KEY
Think about what kind of plants you want to grow. The importance of soil means it dictates whether the plants you prefer will flourish.
An example of how that actually works is demonstrated by the hapless gardener who has a prolific crop of weeds each year, while desirable plants struggle.
Why does that happen? Many weeds have adapted to grow in poor soil. Specialty plants do not adapt so easily. A garden that offers an inferior growing medium is prone to have the less desired plants dominating the landscape.
If growing certain plants is important to you, changes to the soil can make that possible, as long as the climate is appropriate. If you have been disappointed with attempts to grow some of your favorites, the answer and solution may be tied to what is happening below ground.
You will need to determine the characteristics of your soil, and compare that to the requirements of the plants you wish to grow. Some of the changes that may be appropriate are to:
The alternative to modifying the soil is to restrict yourself to a category of plants that fit the profile for the type of soil and growing conditions you currently have.
Soil may be thought of in many ways, but it is not just plain old dirt.
Within the soil, working below the surface, are all the major forms of life. Hidden from our viewing are fungi, bacteria, protozoans, plant systems, insects, worms, mammals, and reptiles. All of these live in the soil, affect its structure, and aid in its development.
This life in the soil depends itself on dead stuff in the soil. Bacteria and fungi are present whenever the soil contains organic matter in the form of decaying plant and animal matter.
Soils which have been depleted of organic material, or baked in the sun with no protection, or polluted in some way, may have limited or no microbial action. It is now possible to get microbes, like mycorrhizae, that will renew proper soil activity.
The bacteria which live in the soil are of great importance in helping to make food available for plant growth. Chemical elements or compounds in the earth must be converted into forms that plants can use. The process of breaking down material to make it available to plants is carried out by bacteria, fungi and other basic life forms.
Healthy soil is important to plants because it provides the amazing interactive medium in which the cycle of life, death, life goes on.
The basic functions of roots are rather obvious: anchor the plant, and provide water and nutrients from the soil as the plant needs them. The ability of the roots to do this depends on certain characteristics of the soil.
Soil is made up of these items (not exclusively):
The ideal soil is one that holds moisture and at the same time allows a constant flow of air through the soil. Soil can not be over-saturated with water or air would be excluded. Air flow brings oxygen to the roots and to micro-organisms, and removes carbon dioxide from the soil.
Sand provides fast drainage and good aeration, but fails in the water holding department. Clay is tops in water holding ability, but dangerously low in supplying air to the soil.
Picture a set of jars, each filled with either small ball bearings or marbles or golf balls. The difference in the amount of space between the different size balls represents the area in which soil can maintain the presence of moisture and air.
Organic material can either help to retain moisture around the large particles, or keep the smaller size particles better spaced to permit air flow.
Organic material is also vital to support the presence of earthworms. The tunneling activity of worms is essential for enabling the movement of air and water through the soil.
The reason why soil is so important to a plant’s survival is because of this need to maintain a balance between moisture and air. The ideal soil would be a mixture of various size particles of mineral and organic matter, that hold together in clumps, or aggregates.
The quality of the soil, as determined by physical characteristics, can help or hinder a plant.
The term pH is simply a measure of the degree of acidity in the soil. The reason why soil pH is so important is that it affects plant growth in four important ways:
Practically all vegetable crops, and the majority of ornamental plants, grow well in a soil that is slightly acid. The neutral pH mark is 7. The numbers decrease as acidity becomes stronger. So most garden plants like a pH of 6.0 to 6.8.
There are many charts available which specify the preferred pH range of various plants. Checking this preference, and checking your soil pH with a soil test, can make a big difference in helping your garden flourish.
***SOIL pH PROBLEMS WILL BECOME PLANT PROBLEMS***
The reason why soil is so important relative to acidity certainly hinges on the interaction of nutrients in the soil. It can be very frustrating for a gardener to regularly apply fertilizer, only to see no improvement in the condition of your plants.
Though there are other variables that affect fertilizing success (click for article) soil pH is a key factor often overlooked.
To drive the point home, if you have an upset stomach or “acid indigestion”, you probably don’t feel like doing much. If the acidity level of your soil is out of whack, nothing good happens there either.
Lawns are important to the majority of landscapes around a home, at least in the United States (except maybe Alaska? I don't know!) There are few landscape features that offer the range of benefits that we enjoy from a lawn.
Such popularity means that people compare one lawn to another. A healthy well-kept lawn adds value to a property and brings esteem to the owner. An unkempt lawn detracts from the overall appearance of a house, a landscape, a neighborhood.
People have a vested interest in keeping their lawn healthy and looking great. They also would like to accomplish that with a minimal expenditure of time, effort or money. Is that your goal?
The most critical element to maintaining that source of pride and satisfaction is the condition of the soil. Much of the effort that often is spent trying to improve an inferior lawn is wasted, or doomed to be repeated, because the greatest need the lawn has is for quality soil.
Why is soil so important to lawns? A grass lawn has demands placed on it like few other plants. How often do you prune the majority of your landscape specimens, once or twice a year, or not at all? Grass gets mowed weekly in most cases. It keeps on growing.
A lawn gets abused by activity in a way that other plants do not. It keeps on growing. A lawn endures extremes of temperature, infestations, applications, strange deposits, irregular and sometimes improper care. It keeps on growing. To a point.
When a lawn starts to show signs of serious problems or deficiencies, what it probably needs more than anything is improvement of the soil. What it usually gets is fertilizer or chemical sprays.
The compaction of top soil is a common problem. This means the roots of the grass are being stressed with inadequate flow of moisture and air.
Soil that is devoid of organic matter cannot assist the roots to absorb moisture or nutrients. It cannot feed the bacteria and fungi that are critical to maintaining a plant’s growth cycle.
Soil that is over-watered or under-watered cannot properly support the colonies of microorganisms that promote fertility and health of the grass.
Soil that is of a poor texture or structure to begin with can never overcome that without drastic and continued intervention.
Why is soil so important to your lawn? It is the absolute key element for grass to thrive and resist problems like disease and weed infestations.
This article is a basic primer to prod your thinking about the one aspect of gardening that many overlook or avoid addressing. Other topics to follow in this series will deal with soil testing, changing the pH of your soil, adding organic material to soil, building soil fertility, aeration, drainage, and more.
If you would to see a specific topic addressed, we welcome your questions or suggestions. Just use the contact form that your can reach from the “Contact Us” button on the navigation bar above.
Do you need professional help to improve the condition of your soil or lawn? Read the 2 FREE GUIDES to get essential advice "Before you hire lawn care services".
Will fertilizer make a difference for your soil? Look at
the differences between organic and inorganic fertilizers.